Applied Hydraulics Engineering

320 190

Regulation 2021

ISBN978-93-80659-02-2

UNIT I           UNIFORM FLOW

Definition and differences between pipe flow and open channel flow – Types of Flow – Properties of open channel – Fundamental equations – Sub-critical, Super-critical and Critical flow – Velocity distribution in open channel – Steady uniform flow: Chezy’s equation, Manning equation – Best hydraulic sections for uniform flow – Computation in Uniform Flow – Specific energy and specific force.

UNIT II        VARIED FLOWS

Dynamic equations of gradually varied – Water surface flow profile classifications: Hydraulic Slope, Hydraulic Curve – Profile determination by Numerical method: Direct step method and Standard step method – Change in Grades.

UNIT III        RAPIDLY VARIED FLOWS 

Application of the momentum equation for RVF – Hydraulic jumps – Types – Energy dissipation – Positive and Negative surges.

 UNIT IV      TURBINES

Turbines – Classification – Impulse turbine – Pelton wheel – Reaction turbines – Francis turbine – Kaplan turbine – Draft tube – Cavitation – Performance of turbine – Specific speed – Runaway speed – Minimum Speed to start the pump.

UNIT V       PUMPS

Centrifugal pumps – Minimum speed to start the pump – NPSH – Cavitation’s in pumps – Operating characteristics – Multistage pumps – Reciprocating pumps – Negative slip – Indicator diagrams and its variations – Air vessels – Savings in workdone.

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