SURVEYING AND LEVELLING

380 266

First Edition : June 2023

ISBN :978-93-95254-86-1

UNIT I : FUNDAMENTALS OF CONVENTIONAL SURVEYING  

Definition – Classifications – Basic principles – Equipment and accessories for ranging and chaining
– Methods of ranging – Well conditioned triangles – Chain traversing – Compass – Basic principles
– Types – Bearing – System and conversions – Sources of errors and Local attraction – Magnetic
declination – Dip – compass traversing – Plane table and its accessories – Merits and demerits –
Radiation – Intersection – Resection – Plane table traversing.

UNIT II : LEVELLING 

Level line – Horizontal line – Datum – Benchmarks – Levels and staves – Temporary and permanent
adjustments – Methods of leveling – Fly leveling – Check leveling – Procedure in leveling – Booking
– Reduction – Curvature and refraction – Reciprocal leveling – Precise leveling – Contouring.

UNIT III : THEODOLITE SURVEYING 

Horizontal and vertical angle measurements – Temporary and permanent adjustments – Heights and
distances – Tacheometric surveying – Stadia Tacheometry – Tangential Tacheometry –
Trigonometric leveling – Single Plane method – Double Plane method.

UNIT IV : CONTROL SURVEYING AND ADJUSTMENT  

Horizontal and vertical control – Methods – Triangulation – Traversing – Gale‘s table –
Trilateration – Concepts of measurements and errors – Error propagation and Linearization –
Adjustment methods – Least square methods – Angles, lengths and levelling network.

UNIT V: MODERN SURVEYING 

Total Station: Digital Theodolite, EDM, Electronic field book – Advantages – Parts and accessories
– Working principle – Observables – Errors – COGO functions – Field procedure and
applications.GPS: Advantages – System components – Signal structure – Selective availability
and antispoofing receiver components and antenna – Planning and data acquisition – Data
processing – Errors inGPS – Field procedure and applications.

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